What is oral surgery?
Oral surgery (odontostomatology) is a set of procedures that serve to eliminate disease, restore lost function and anatomical conditions, and prevent the occurrence of cancerous lesions.
Restoring functional and aesthetic well-being to the entire odonto-stomatognathic system, i.e., teeth, bone, and soft tissue (gums, cheeks, tongue).
Analysis and eventual removal of tissue.
Insertion of orthodontic mini screws to anchor braces.
Apicectomy (surgical endodontics).
Functional, biological and aesthetic.
What types of interventions are performed?
The most well-known and widespread oral surgery procedure is tooth extraction. There are several causes that lead to extraction:
caries or fracture;
overlapping or inclusion of teeth;
Analysis and possible tissue sampling
The dental check-up includes an oral screening to intercept any abnormalities of the soft tissue or bone part. If suspicious lesions are present, all appropriate investigations (oral-ID) are implemented in order to rule out their presence. If necessary, a tissue sample (biopsy) is taken for sending to the hospital laboratory for histological analysis.
Sometimes the labial frenulum, the thin band of tissue that connects the lips to the alveolar mucosa (tooth junction), is not in the correct position causing functional or cosmetic damage. Frenulectomy is performed to change the shape of the frenulum, preventing the formation of diastema (space between teeth) and possible bone injury between teeth.
The lingual frenulum is the band of tissue that connects the tongue to the jaw and regulates its movement.
A short frenulum limits the functionality of the tongue with possible disturbances to phonetics, swallowing, dental arch bone development and cervical posture. Lingual frenectomy is used to modify its length, restoring full tongue function.
Insertion of mini orthodontic screws to anchor braces
Small orthodontic screws made of titanium are inserted to better anchor the braces.
This allows for faster and more precise improvements in a variety of situations: closure of open bite, mandibular shifts, palate expansion, straightening of teeth, extrusion of included teeth, and dental derotation.
Other types of interventions
Apicectomy (surgical endodontics)
Removal of the apical part of the tooth root in case of infections that cannot be cured by devitalization. Infections may have been caused by many factors such as: previous substandard treatment, canal calcifications, resorption of the apices, trauma.
The gingiva is incised to discover where the infection is present. The bone is drilled to search for the infected area. It is cleaned, the root cut and further cleaning of the root itself. This is concluded with an airtight filling so that the area is no longer subject to bacterial attack.
From this point, the bone is self-healing, and after 6 months a follow-up X-ray confirms our healing status.
Introduction or stimulation of bone regrowth where missing, to restore the correct size for functional (biomechanical and dental hygiene) and esthetic reasons.
A biocompatible bone mixture is fixed at the site with custom (customized) titanium membranes or cages. In 6 to 8 months, osteoblast cells, which produce bone, find the substance on which to anchor and transform it into the person's own bone.
Horizontal bone regeneration: in the presence of the necessary height, but lacks bone thickness.
Vertical bone regeneration: lacking both height and thickness.
Sinus augmentation: recovery of thickness and height, going directly into the sinus.
Once the procedure is completed, the implant can be placed.
These are lesions that can form in the mandible and maxilla.
They grow and expand by going on to "eat" the bone, creating infections and fractures.
They are removed completely, giving the bone a chance to regenerate.
Dental alveolus trauma
Accidental trauma is often encountered during sports or play activities, which can cause severe dental fractures, dental concussions (tooth enters bone), dislocations (tooth displacement), and complete avulsion (expulsion of the entire tooth from its socket).
It is necessary to retrieve the tooth or fragments and keep them bathed in biological fluids (e.g., bottled mineral water or milk) and intervene as soon as possible, within 4 hours of the trauma sustained.
The goal of the surgery is to save the tooth, reposition it properly, and block it (splinting) to allow the fibers of the bone to re-weld the tooth.